Atmospheric Many people think of the people that the atmosphere is not only a layer of air that swim and which comprises the types of clouds , that is, the layer does not exceed a height of 10 km above the Earth's surface , and decreasing the amount of air as altitude increases , and perhaps many of us do not know that the climb Himalayas carrying with them the cylinder of compressed air because the air there is a decrease amounts frequently than it is near the surface of the ground, it becomes difficult to breathe . The source of this belief , which we have referred to in the beginning, it is lack of knowledge of the existence of the other layers of atmosphere at altitudes greater , or the lack of attention given by themselves because they do not directly affect human life on earth. Some people have started to know the existence of these classes in view of their impact on the reception of radio waves sometimes . In short, the atmosphere is not only near the air layer , it is the cover of a large and loud scientists studied directly in the regions near and indirectly by ground equipment and devices they send space with satellites and spacecraft in space exploration . Atmospheric composition If the air samples were collected from the dry air in the atmosphere, the troubled ( without water vapor and pollutants ) , and then analyzed these samples , the results of the analysis are measured as a percentage volumetric are: Layers of the atmosphere The atmosphere consists of four layers begins near the surface of the earth to reach areas in space is very far from the surface of the earth . 1 . Class troubled " or cover troubled " Troposphere It is the first layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth's surface , which consists mostly of the air we breathe , which becomes less dense and less releasing oxygen whenever we rise to the top away from the Earth's surface. The thickness of this layer ranges from about 8 km above the poles to 16 km above the equator is bounded on the top thin layer ( a few Thickness) class called quiet Tropopause and features consistently temperature. In the turbulent layer drops the temperature to rise up from the surface of the earth is the approximate average of 18:00 / km , that is, they become almost 4050 m below zero at an altitude of 10 km , and this rise is the area of civil aviation , and boarded a plane must have heard the pilot of the plane , which declares that the temperature outside the plane (40 m , for example) , and those who climb high mountains know that the temperature of the top of the mountain be lower by several degrees from the foot . . Almttbak atmospheric or gaseous layer Almttbakh Stratosphere Is the second layer of the atmosphere , which is located above the turbulent atmospheric layer and separates him quiet or stable Tropopause. This extends the class of 1250 km altitude , where the average height of the bottom surface at the equator is larger than at the height of the poles. Increasing the temperature in this layer where whenever we rise . Temperatures in the upper part of this layer , where " very few air " to near zero percentile , but what the cause of the temperature rise this ? There is in this Almttbak atmospheric ozone layer , which absorbs the sun's ultraviolet rays . Results from the thermal distribution and the lack of air in this region is quite stable weather conditions , so we do not find the currents and turbulence in the turbulent atmospheric layer , where we do not find any trace of clouds or other weather phenomena . This layer is a layer fly long distances because they are located away from areas of stormy weather , and distinguishes horizontal winds strong but steady "Steady". The end of this class and its origins are natural for atmospheric medium which is followed by a thin cover of gaseous atmosphere, called the Pacific or static Stratopause. Are more layers of the atmosphere density , and mass are equivalent to 75-85 % of the mass of the atmosphere , complete , and most of this block located at an altitude of less than 8 km from the earth's surface. 3 . Atmospheric middle class or gaseous medium Mesosphere Section means "meso" average middle, this is the third layer literally means the middle class from the atmosphere , is located at an altitude of about 5080 km above the Earth's surface is separated from the gaseous envelope Almttbak layer atmospheric Almttbak quiet and atmospheric warming, which is followed by a thin layer average atmospheric Pacific mesopause. The temperature drops in this class, the greater the rise to reach (100 m) , and this layer is the lowest layer of the atmosphere in the temperature , which is smaller than the smallest temperature recorded in the south polar region of the Earth. Freezes water vapor in this layer of clouds turns to ice . You can see the clouds ice if it was struck by sunlight after sunset . These clouds are called " noctilucent clouds Noctilucent Clouds. Burning in this class meteors and meteorites during their passage in the atmosphere and that we see from the ground like a rocket asterisk. 4 . Atmospheric gases or air layer thermal Thermosphere The outer layer is the outermost of the atmosphere separated from the atmosphere, average middle-class quiet temperature rises in this layer to over 1000 m . Receive few molecules of the material in this layer enormous amounts of solar energy reaching the temperature that we have mentioned . We know that the air temperature is a measure of kinetic energy of the molecules and is not a measure of the amount of energy stored in it Based on the above, the amounts of air very rare in the atmosphere, warming despite the high temperature , but the capacity is very small compared with the energy in the atmosphere, warming or in class -invasive Almttbakh , despite the high temperature which , the gaseous envelope the thermal envelope is very cool and can not be for the few air molecules , which is occupied by the movement of heat to our skin ( if we imagine that we were swimming in this class . Atmospheric warming is divided into two parts : A - atmospheric ion Ionosphere. B - the outer gaseous envelope Exosphere. A - atmospheric ion layer gas or ionic This layer extends from 80 km to the height of about 600 km and more . In turn this layer of air molecules (!) And its atoms into ions and free electrons motion, ionized air molecules (!) By the sun's ultraviolet rays , and that helps , too, but to a lesser extent , solar -minute high-energy cosmic rays . This layer sends electromagnetic waves because of the enormous amount of free electrons in them , so can radio waves (the electromagnetic waves ) to jump or reflected from this layer and thus transmitted over long distances as we have seen and heard in radio and television programs . The following statement may hear the announcer one of the radio stations : "We regret the disruption the conditions of reception due to the instability in the upper atmosphere in the class of ionic ," The noise and poor reception of radio waves caused by pollution Moggi on the ground or in the layer of atmospheric ion . Happens in this layer Twilight types aurorae.
B . The outer gaseous envelope Are higher or further layers of the atmosphere , up to a height of about 10,000 km , which is the upper limit for our atmosphere ground , interferes ( blend ) the atmosphere here with outer space where the air layer is too thin to some extent hard to imagine evade atoms and air molecules of this class heading toward outer space . This layer is made up of the atmosphere of elemental hydrogen and helium ( in the case of ionic ) where their densities in the lower border imaginable . Swim satellites launched by the rights in this layer of the layers of the atmosphere .