290px-The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819


Sun ( symbol Sun symbol.svg) which is the central star of the solar system . It is almost spherical and contain plasma lane intertwined with the magnetic field . [ 12 ] [13] with a diameter of about 1392684 km, [ 5 ] which is equivalent to 109 times the diameter of Earth and a mass of 2 × 1030 kg which is equivalent to 330,000 times the mass of Earth and accounted for somewhere to 99.86 % of the mass of all the solar system. [14]

Of the chemical form of hydrogen three -quarters of the components of the solar mass , while the rest is mostly helium with a rate of 1.69% ( equivalent to almost 5,628 of the Earth's mass ) of heavier elements , including oxygen , carbon, neon , iron and other elements . [15]

Sun belong according to the stellar classification on the basis of spectral classes to the class G2V. Defined as yellow dwarf , because the rays are more visible in the spectrum , yellow and green . The looks on the surface of the ball landlines yellow in color although the color white because of the publication of radiation to the sky blue color .. [ 16 ] In any case according to star rating , indicates G2 to the surface temperature , which reaches almost to 5778 Kelvin , while indicating the symbol V that the sun is a star of the basic pattern . And considered by astronomers as a small star and Dal relatively , and believed that the sun with a glitter of more than 85% of the stars of the Milky Way , to form the midgets red most of the stars of this galaxy. [ 17] [18 ] with a degree of absolute sun 4.83 , and a star closer to the ground , the the sun is more offense to shine in the sky of the earth with as much as a virtual -26.74 . [ 19] [20 ] expands the sun's corona continuously to the space problem of what is known as the solar wind which is about charged particles stretch the edge of the heliosphere (heliopause) and up to about 100 astronomical units , and the center is filled with interstellar solar wind . Heliosphere constitute the largest structure in the solar system is connected . [ 21 ] [ 22 ]

Moving the sun in the local interstellar cloud located in the local bubble within the inner edge of the arm of the mighty arms of a spiral galaxy to the Milky Way . Sun occupies the fourth intensive in terms of the mass within the fifty- star closest to Earth ( star located at a distance of 17 light years from Earth ) , while the nearest star from the ground after the sun is the closest Centaur , which is located just 4.2 light-years . [23]

Hungarian orbit of the sun is the center of the galaxy for a rough range between 24.000 to 26.000 light-years away , the sun completes its orbit Hungarian or Hungarian year as it appears from the northern galactic pole in about 225-250 million years ago. Since the galaxy is moving proportionately with the cosmic background radiation Almikroeva at 550 km / h resulting in movement of the sun at 370 km / h toward the constellation lion or constellation Crater . [24]

An average distance of the sun from the earth approximately 149.6 million kilometers ( astronomical units one ) , and believes that this distance is changing move the Earth from apogee to perigee . [25] Light travels at this distance medium through 8 minutes and 9 seconds, believes energy light rays solar transition to Earth life Insurance them through the process of photosynthesis , [26] in addition to securing the Earth 's climate and weather , has been known effects of the sun on the ground in the prehistoric era , and the sun was considered by some cultures as a deity . The evolution of scientific understanding of the sun slowly , and even scholars of the nineteenth century was the knowledge about the material composition of the sun and the source of energy is limited, and continues to evolve with this knowledge, there are some anomalies in the behavior of the Sun of others capable of interpretation

General FeaturesEdit

Sun belong to the type of the primary star pattern G, and constitute the mass of the sun is about 99.8632 %
200px-Sun - August 1, 2010

False color image illustrated ultraviolet ray shows glow of the class C (white area in the upper left part) and a solar tsunami (wave-shaped building in the upper left) and multi-threading of plasma trace the magnetic field rises from the stellar surface

of the mass of the solar system as a whole . And shape almost spherical full so different diameter at the pole for the diameter at the equator ten kilometers only . [27] as the sun is in the plasma state and not in the solid state , it spins faster at the equator than at the poles and This behavior is known to spin differential , and cause pregnancy heat and mass move because of the large gradient in temperature from the nucleus to the outside. Carrying this block is part of the angular momentum , unlike hand clockwise rotation to appear on it from the Arctic to the path of the sun , and so are re Nusia angular velocity . The real rotation period of the Sun takes 25.6 days when the line Astewaih and 33.5 days at the poles . While the virtual rotation period at the equator 28 days . [28] The effect of centrifugal force to spin this slow 18 million less than twice the power of attraction surface at the equator . The effect of the power of tidal effect of the planets is very weak , so I do not have little impact on the shape of the sun. [29]

The sun is a star rich in minerals . [30] it is possible to form the sun may stimulate a result of waves of shock from the supernova or more were close . [31] suggest this model because of the abundance of heavy metals in the solar system , such as gold and uranium , relative to the availability of heavy metals in other stars . The likely emergence of these elements of the stimulus by atomic absorption and energy that occurs during the supernova explosion , or during the shift as a result of the nuclear absorption of neutrons within the star secondary generator. [30]

Sun does not have a clear end like rocky planets , and decreasing the density of gas in the outer parts of the sun as we move away from the nucleus . [32] However, the internal structure of the sun clearly distinguishable as will explain later. Measured the radius of the sun , starting from the center of the nucleus to the end of the casing photosynthesis ( the photosphere ) which is the highest layer of the nucleus where the gases cool and so thin that radiate significant amounts of light , so be Bsaoly surface visible to the naked eye . [33]

You can not see inside the solar eye , and that the sun is permeable to electromagnetic radiation . Is the study of the internal structure of the Sun is similar to the study of the internal structure of the Earth, in the case of the land is used seismic waves , while crossing waves Alatdgatih in the case of the sun on the internal structure of the sun and was able to visualize the internal structure them. [34] also used computer simulation as a method of theoretical study the sun and explore the inner layers


Sun extends from the center of the nucleus of the Sun to 20-25 % of the radius of the sun. [35] and increase the density from 150 g / cm 3 [ 36 ] [ 37 ] (about 150 times the density of water ) . Temperature reaches within the nucleus to 15.7 million Kelvin , while the temperature of the sun's surface up to 5,800 Kelvin . [35] according to the analysis of the SOHO probe the nucleus of the sun rotates faster than the speed of rotation of the region Radiation . [35] produces solar energy through most of life sun through nuclear fusion through a series of stages called a series of interaction proton - proton , and through this process turns
250px-Sun parts big-ar

Cross-section of the Sun

Alhedrugenely helium . [38] while the cycle is produced by kno only 0.8% of the sun's energy . [39]

Class is the nucleus of the sun , which produces most of the thermal energy of the sun through nuclear fusion , it is the 24 % of the solar radius is producing 99% of energy . And stop the process of nuclear fusion beyond 30 % of the solar radius , while the rest of the star is heated by heat transfer . Thus, the energy produced from the nucleus of which passed through several layers to reach the photosphere to move from there into space in the form of light beams and kinetic energy of the particles . [ 40 ] [ 41 ]

Thds series proton - proton within the nucleus of the sun every 9.2 * 1037 times per second . Since this reaction uses four protons free ( hydrogen nuclei ), it converts 3.7 * 1038 proton to alpha particle ( nuclei of helium ) through per second , equivalent to about 6.2 * 1011 kg per second . [41] Because the fusion of hydrogen and its transformation into helium frees about 0.7 % of the molten mass into energy , [42 ] amounts to the total mass transformed into energy of about 4.26 million tons / second or energy resulting from the transformation of this block is equal to 384.6 watts * 1026 [1] which is equivalent to the energy generated by the explosion of 9.192 * 1010 kg of that the T per second . And turn matter into energy and radiate as energy radiation , according to the law of equal matter and energy that Einstein jewelers in the theory of relativity .

Change the energy produced by nuclear fusion depending on the distance from the center of the sun . Theoretical simulations illustrate that the energy produced in the center of the sun up to 276.5 W / m

The area of radiologicalEdit

The fact that solar matter in an area on the radius of less than 0.7 of the diameter of the sun, hot and dense enough so that the thermal transfer radiation large heat transfer large nucleus outward. [43] There is nothing in this region Thermal transfer pregnancy , also cools the material in this area of ​​7 million to 2 million Kelvin Kelvin is commensurate with the rise. This thermal gradient is less than the value of the rate of fall Aladipati and that can not lead to a transfer of pregnancy . [37] energy transmitted by radiation hydrogen
300px-Sun diagram.svg

Layers of the sun: 1. Heart of the sun (14 million Kelvin) 2. Radioactive area (2 million Kelvin) 3. Convection zone 4. Cover light (5800 K) 5. Casing color (light and X-ray spectra and other) 6. Halo 7. Sunspots 8. Granular rough surface 9. Solar blast

ions and emissions of photons helium and transmitted a short distance before the re- absorption of other ions . [43] as reduced density to a hundred-fold area ranging from 0.25 diameter of the Sun to the top of the area of radiation (from 20 g / cm 3 to 0.2 g / cm 3) [43]

Formed in the place of contact between the region and radiation zone sentences layer transition known line speed or Takulaan , characterized this class change sharply in the circulation system of rotation regular in the area of radiological to turnover differential in the pregnancy , resulting from the stresses Cut large to slip horizontal layers each on some . [44] movement of liquid present in the area of pregnancy disappear gradually from top to bottom are Itapf features static layer of Radiation in the bottom of the convection zone , currently proposed hypothesis dynamo solar terms imposed that the dynamo Aghannatisa in this layer generates the magnetic field of the sun. [37]

Convection zoneEdit

As of the outer layer of the sun's surface , down to approximately 200,000 km towards the nucleus ( about 70% of the radius of the sun) are not enough plasma or hot Bmaver Alkvaiy for the transfer of internal thermal energy to the outside by radiation . As a result, heat transfer occurs by pregnancy , where currents carry heat hot material toward the surface of the sun , and once cool these materials carry the pregnancy to the bottom of the area to receive heat from the top of the radiation zone . Temperatures in the visible region of the sun's surface to 5700 K , and the density of 0.2 g / cm 3 only (about 1/6000 of the air density at sea level ) . [37]

Form the columns resulting from the thermal heat transfer characteristic of pregnancy on the sun's surface known as solar -grained granules solar facilities. Cause convection in the turbulent region, the impact of this small dynamo which leads to the emergence of a north pole and a magnetic south pole of the sun. [37] thermal columns are cells Benard it be in the form of hexagonal publication . [ 45 ]

Cover photosynthesisEdit

Known as the visible surface of the sun the Earth's photosynthesis, the lowest layer of this layer of opacity to visible light , [46] becomes the sunlight is free to move to the space above this layer , including the transmitted energy in the sun outside . The change in the optical properties of the sun in this layer as a result of decreased amounts of anion and hydrogen , which absorb visible light easily . [46] On the contrary,
220px-EffectiveTemperature 300dpi e

Effective temperature or the temperature of a black body, with a 5777 Kelvin temperature of a black body has the same size should infuse the same amount of energy. Distribution of electromagnetic waves according to wavelength (yellow) and compared the distribution of black body radiation (gray) at the same temperature

it produces visible light electrons react with hydrogen atoms to reduce the amount of anion hydrogen . [ 47 ] [ 48 ] of the thickness of the cover optical hundreds of kilometers with a slightly lower opacity of Earth air . Because the top section of the casing optical colder than the lowest divisions . Show the captured images of the sun as having higher brightness at the center of it for parties or Eogod darkening on the edge of the solar disk is the famous name of darkening the parties . [46] have sunlight almost nice black body which Miacher that a temperature of about 6000 Kelvin , punctuated by spectral lines atomic weak layers in the atmosphere above the scanner . An optical density of particles cover about 1023 m 3 which is equivalent to 0.37% of the density of particles of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level . Back because most of the atmospheric particles of photosynthesis are protons and electrons , which makes the particles of the Earth's atmosphere heavier 58 -fold. [43]

Observed during the early studies of the visible spectrum that some of the spectral lines do not fit with any known chemical compound on earth. Therefore, the imposition of Joseph Norman Lockyer in 1868 that there is a new element exists and is called helium , and did not go after only 25 years old so that helium was isolated on Earth. [49]


Mainly in the heliosphere using radio waves or gamma rays : the area heat to low and cover stained area of transition and the solar corona and the heliosphere . [46] The heliosphere outer layer of the sun Ataatmdd heliosphere beyond Pluto to become a film solar ( sheath solar ) , where form limits on the form of shock wave in the interstellar medium . Each of the colored casing and the transition region and the corona hotter than the sun's surface . [46] until now did not demonstrate the reason behind it , but it is suggested that Olvvin waves have enough energy to heat the corona [ 50 ]

The layer closest to the sun is a layer low temperature and lies at an altitude of 500 km of the atmosphere light, temperatures in this layer to 4100 Kelvin . [46] and this layer with a temperature low enough to support the existence of water molecules and carbon monoxide and could determine the presence of these two compounds using spectral lines . [51]

Ttamoda layer low temperature layer cover stained , a layer with a thickness of about 2000 km dominant by the lines of the spectrum .. [ 46 ] and is so named because it believes Comid tinted at the beginning and end of the eclipse of the sun . [43] increased movement in this layer gradually with rise to up to 20,000 Kelvin temperature near the top of this layer . Becomes the helium in the upper part of this layer partially ionized . [52]

Exists a thin layer thickness of 200 kilometers , an area transition , characterized this region rapidly rising temperature so that rise from 20,000 Kelvin in predatory area cover stained to 1,000,000 Kelvin . [ 53 ] and contributes to ionize the entire helium in this region of the rapid increase of the temperature so as to contribute to reduce impact fluids radiation of the plasma . [52] does not occur the transition region as a
220px-Solar eclipse 1999 4 NR

You can see the sun's corona during a total eclipse of the sun with the naked eye

350px-171879main LimbFlareJan12 lg

Image captured by the Indian probe in 2007 reveal this picture of the nature of solar plasma that connect different regions of magnetic polarity

case on the rise what , but form a halo of light around the casing colored and appear Kohj . [43] easy pulmonary region of the transition from the ground, as easy Rúath from space using equipment sensitive to UV . [ 54 ]

Aura extends to the outside , which itself is larger than the sun. Extends the aura continuously to the space problem of the solar wind , which filled all the solar system. [ 55 ] have a bottom layer of the corona near the sun density of particles ranging from 1015 to 1016 m -3 . [52] between the average temperature of the corona and solar wind 1,000,000 -2000000 Kelvin , in spite of the heat in the hottest areas ranging from 8,000,000-20,000,000 . [ 53 ] so far no theory to calculate the heat the corona , but some of the heat I knew Boisthaaadh magnetic contact . [ 53 ] [ 55 ]

Heliosphere is a cavity around the sun is full Bblazma solar wind and extends to about 20 times the radius of the sun or the outer limits of the solar system . Hadddodh know that the external layer which becomes the solar wind flow out faster than the waves Olvvin . [ 56 ] unrest and dynamic forces outside these limits are not affected by the shape of the solar corona , including , because the information can only travel within the speed wave Olvvin . Wind is always transmitted to the outside atmospheric sun form solar magnetic field in the form of a spiral , [ 55 ] even collide Baghamd solar within 50 astronomical units . Over the probe Voyager 1 next shock wave , which is believed to be part of the solar sheath . The record of both Voyager Mspara high levels of energy when Oqterbo limits of the cover. [ 57 ]

Magnetic fieldEdit

Magnetically active sun is a star . It supports changes powerful which vary from year to year and change direction every one ten -year-old around the solar maximum . [ 59 ] causes the magnetic field of the solar to the interactions of many called the whole solar activity including sunspots on the surface of the sun and the solar eruptions and changes in solar wind that carry material across the Group the solar system. [ 60 ] includes the effect of solar activity on Earth aurora and disrupt the wireless communications and electric power . Believes that solar activity plays a major role in the formation and evolution of the solar system. It also changes the installation of solar activity outside the Earth's atmosphere . [61]

All materials are in the sun and extremes of gaseous plasma as a result of the high heat of the sun . Making it easy for the sun to spin faster at the equator (about 25 days ) than in the higher latitudes (about 35 days near the poles ) . Causing the differential rotation of the sun rise with the magnetic field lines tangle with each other , causing episodes of the magnetic field arising from the surface of the sun and lead to massive

Stream heliosphere league extends to the last centers of the solar system and produce because of the tangles caused by the rotation of the magnetic field with the solar field between planetary [58]

formations of sunspots and solar flares . As this causes tangles magnetic dynamo effect of the solar cycle and the eleven -year solar magnetic activity , which reflects the solar magnetic field the same one every ten years. [ 62 ] [ 63 ]

Carrying solar wind magnetic field, solar magnetic problem with what is known as the Inter- planetary magnetic field . [ 55 ] Since the plasma can be transmitted along the lines of the magnetic field , the magnetic field extends Albin planetary diagonally from the sun. Because the magnetic field above and below the equator his points different polarity toward or away from the sun, and there is a thin layer of electrical current at the level of the solar equator , called stream heliosphere league . [ 55 ] crosslinking rotation of the sun 's magnetic field and current league at a distance snail -shaped structure called Archimedes problem snail Parker . [ 55 ] Inter- planetary magnetic field is much stronger than the magnetic field of the Sun duo . Magnetic field strength varies duo to the sun between 50-400 Maikarotsla ( at atmospheric optical ) and decreases inversely proportional to the cube of the distance of up to 0.1 nT at a distance equal to the earth after . While , according to satellite measurements radiosondes be manifest planetary magnetic field on the earth after equal to 5 nT . [64]

The chemical compositionEdit

un is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium racist by 9 and 74 and 8 % and 23 %, respectively, and this configuration is shown in the cover of photosynthesis. [ 65 ] and called the heavier elements of the "Metal " according to the astronomical term , and the increase in the sun for less than 2 % of the mass of the sun. And minerals consist of 1% of the oxygen and carbon 3 and 0% and Neon 2 and 0 %, Fe 2 and 0% , according to the measurements in 2004. [66] and formed the sun for about 5 and 4 billion years of hydrogen and helium mixed by the few metals ( about 5 and 1% ) arising out of the synthesis of elements in generations of stars older completed the stages of development and then exploded Kmstarat superpower and threw the contents in the middle Alpinndjema , and which formed the sun . [67] The chemical composition of the sheath photosynthesis similar chemical composition of the group Achammsh at its inception . [ 68 ] After the emergence of the sun and began the synthesis of metallic elements heavier Vtnfsal this cover for the optical surface sediment in the center of the sun . Therefore contains atmospheric optical currently on the ratio of helium less where it was when the original rate of emergence of the sun 4 and 27 % and the ratio of hydrogen 1 and 71 % and 5 metals and 1% . [ 65 ]

The work of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen and helium in its transformation into the heart of the sun on the changing proportions of the elements , bringing the soles of the sun contains 60% of helium also changed the proportions of other elements " metals ." Because the inner layer of the soles of the sun moves the layer of heat by radiation and convection is not the heavy components resulting from nuclear fusion is concentrated in the heart of the sun does not come out to the surface (cover photosynthesis ) . [69]

The above description of the solar concentration of heavy elements measured using astronomical spectroscopy for the analysis of atmospheric light of the sun and measuring the concentration of elements in stone meteorites that were not heated to the melting point . Believed that this stone meteorites have saved the initial installation of the star to the sun and thus not affected by the accumulation

Anaasralhdid ionized group of individualEdit

The wide range of research in 1970 focused on the search for concentrations of iron set in the sun. [70] [71] and despite the fact that such research has achieved satisfactory results, however, determine the concentrations of some elements of the iron set (Kalcopalt and magnesium) remained difficult until 1978 because of their structure ultra-precision. [70]

Search completed the first full study of the forces of the oscillation elements of single ionized iron set in the year 1962, [72] and calculated the forces of volatility in the year 1976. [73] In 1978, derived concentrations of ionized iron group elements. [70]

The relationship between the sun and the planets in terms of the mass retailEdit

Imposes many of the researchers and a relationship in the retail mass between structures isotopes and solar noble gases planetary, [74], for example, the interdependence between structures isotopes planetary and neon and xenon sun. [75] and was thought until 1983 that all the sun have the same composition which is owned by the atmosphere solar [76]

In 1983 he was invited there segmentation in the sun itself caused my relationship retail isotopic compositions of the planets and the solar wind colliding noble gases. [76]

Solar cycleEdit

Sunspots and sunspot cyclesEdit

Usually when monitoring the sun with appropriate filtering , the sunspots of the features that you see quickly , which is defined as an area of ​​the surface of the sun looks darker than their surroundings because of low temperature . Be sunspot area of ​​activity where intense magnetic inhibits heat transfer due to pregnancy- strong magnetic field , which reduces the transfer of energy from hotter zones . Heating causes the magnetic field in a large halo , resulting in areas to be sources of intense solar glare and emission coronal mass

Measurements of changes in sunspots during the last 30 years


Date of monitoring the number of sunspots during the last 25 years that show the sun's 11-year-old

ejection . Has a clip of some sunspots tens of thousands of kilometers . [ 77 ]

Number of sunspots visible on the Sun is not constant , but it changes each cycle consisting of a ten -year-old . The lowest in the solar cycle a few spots can Rúath and sometimes can not spot any pulmonary and be mostly at high latitudes . With the progress of the solar cycle, the number of sunspots and moving towards the equator , this phenomenon is described by law Sporr . Usually Matinco sunspots between a couple of the magnetic poles . Changing the magnetic poles of each solar cycle , so each magnetic north pole in the cycle turns into a south pole at the next session . [ 78 ]

Solar cycle impact heavily on the space environment , as well as great an impact on the earth's climate as it is for the Sunshine great relationship with magnetic activity . Tends solar activity at the lowest session to be linked with temperatures lowest , while more than the average session associated with varying heat up. [79] in the seventeenth century seemed that the solar cycle had stopped for several decades . Few spots observed during this period , which led to the emergence of the Little Ice Maaraf era , Europe witnessed cold temperatures unusually . [ 80 ] has been discovered minimum temperature through the analysis of tree rings and seems to have coincided with lower than average global temperatures [81]

The possibility of long term courseEdit

There is a theory claiming that there is instability in the magnetic core of the sun cause fluctuations with long periods of years, ranging from 41,000 to 1 million years. This theory can provide a better explanation of the ice ages Milankovitch cycles. [82] [83]

The life cycle of the sunEdit

Formed the sun by about 4.57 billion years as a result of the collapse of a section of the cloud molecular giant and that they contain the most fitted to the hydrogen and helium , it is possible that this cloud has formed other stars . [ 85 ] It has been estimated that age based on modeling using the computer to estimate the evolution stellar and through the science of chronology cosmic as well. [9] the results were consistent with the data history of radioactive materials older than the solar system. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] studies revealed the
320px-Solar evolution (English).svg

The evolution of the sun and the brightness of the solar radius and effective temperature compared with the present. [84]

meteorites ancient traces the nuclei of stable isotopes short-lived , such as iron -60 , which is formed only in explosions short-term for the Stars . And this indicates that it should be exploding supernova or two near the place form the sun. It is likely that the wave shock resulting from the explosion of supernovae has urged that constitute the sun through the pressure of the gases within the cloud, molecular , and caused the collapse inside the cloud in an area under the influence of its appeal. [ 88 ] the detachable part of the cloud collapsed began to rotate because of Musonah angular momentum and begun temperature growing, with high pressure, a result that gathered most of the mass in the center, while the rest flew out to disk , which formed the planets and the rest of the solar system . Born pressure and temperature in the core of the cloud separate a large amount of heat as the accumulation of more gas from the periphery of the disk , causing it finally initiates nuclear reactions and thus was born our sun

Now is the sun in the middle of the old STAR format is essential, and during this phase will be the interactions of hydrogen turning hydrogen into helium . In every second turn more than a million tons of matter into energy within the nucleus of the sun producing solar radiation and neutrons , this ratio is equivalent to convert nearly 100 times the Earth's mass into energy. Under the sun in the stage of basic layout since the beginning to end about 10 billion years . [89]

Sun does not have enough mass to explode Kmstar greatest , and instead it after 5 billion years will enter a red giant phase , which will extend the outer layers of them because of the force of a hydrogen fuel in the core and the core will shrink and heat . Will continue the integration of hydrogen around the nucleus containing helium , which Staatmd continuously as long as there is production of helium . Once the core temperature up to 100 million Kelvin begins merger helium and carbon production for the intervention of the sun asymptotic giant phase . [30] follows the red giant phase of severe thermal pulses cause the sun to get rid of their outer layers and form a planetary nebula . The only thing that remains after the outer layers are extrusion core warm , which Estbrd slowly and Taatdmahl the white dwarf over billions of years . This is the scenario of the evolution of medium- mass stars . [ 90 ] [ 91 ]

Fading sunEdit

It is known that the fate of the Earth in the end settled with extinction . When the sun shall be turned into a red giant , the radius would extend to behind the Earth's orbit current , where the radius of the red giant will be the largest with 250 times the diameter of the current . [ 92 ] However the time will turn red giant to a giant asymptotic , where you will lose the sun 30% of their mass because of Alrj stellar , so it will escape the planets from their orbits to the outside , and believed that the Earth will be spared , but scientists believe
600px-Solar Life Cycle ar

The life cycle of the sun.

that the earth devour by the sun due to tidal forces .. [ 92 ] and even if successful Earth to escape from swallowing the sun , the water on the surface boil , and most of its atmosphere would escape back into space . Even during the life of the sun astrocytes within the basic type layout , the Zia sun will gradually increase (10 % every billion years ) and thus the temperature will rise gradually , which will have a great impact on the ground . It is known that the sun was more muted in the past , and could be the cause of life on Earth began about a billion years ago . Increase the heat in this way will lead to warming, and the evaporation of water on the surface of the earth in the billion next year , which will eliminate all forms of life on Earth. [ 92 ] [ 93 ]


Sunlight is the main source of energy on earth. While the other source of energy is the fissile material in the subsoil , and this is a source of fissile material geothermal energy by nuclear reactions . Known as the solar constant amount of energy that would be secured by the sun for one area exposed to direct sunlight .
310px-Comparison sun seen from planets.svg

A comparison between the size of the sun as seen in the vicinity of the eight planets and Pluto

220px-Actual Sunset

Sunset scene from the surface

Equivalent hard sun 's surface just astronomical units and one (equivalent after the earth from the sun ) about 1368 W / m 2 [94] contributes to the Earth's atmosphere attenuation of sunlight and therefore the energy hyphen to the sun be close to 1000 W / m 2 and the conditions of nature , and when the sun put knighted head. [ 95 ]

Solar energy can be harnessed in several ways natural and artificial . The process of photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy is one of the processes that take place naturally on Earth. Can use the energy of sunlight to generate electricity by heating or direct conversion of light into electricity using solar cells . The energy Almchterna in oil and other fossil fuels is the primary source was a turning solar energy through photosynthesis in the distant past . [ 96

Movement and positioning of the sun in the galaxyEdit

Ttamoda sun near the inner arm of the Milky Way galaxy called the Orion arm , within the cloud Albin stellar local or cloud belt. Presumably it away from the center of the galaxy from 7.5-8.5 astronomical league ( the equivalent of 25,000 to 28,000 light-years ) [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] and is contained within a local center of the bubble of hot gas interrupters and probably its inception because of the remnants of supernova twins . [ 101 ] is the local arm of the nearest arm outside his arm Perseus about 6,500 light-years away .. [ 102 ] scientists named the sun and the solar system in favor of what is known as the scope for housing .
220px-Solar system barycenter.svg

The movement of the center of mass of the solar system relative to the sun

Believed that the orbit of the sun around the galactic center as close to the shape of an ellipse with some distortions as a result of the heterogeneity of
220px-236084main MilkyWay-full-annotated

Scheme shows the Milky Way and repositioning the sun

the distribution of blocks spiral arms of the galaxy . In addition, the sun moves Tzbzbah movement up and down relative to the level of the galaxy and this movement is about 2.7 times in each orbital cycle . I suggest that the sun had passed through the arm of the Hungarian density greater causing extinctions mass on the ground , because of the increased collisions. [103] cycle lasts tropical one of the solar system about a billion years ( Year Hungarian ) , [ 104 ] so it is believed that the sun will complete the 20 - 25 orbits during her life. An orbital speed of the solar system for the movement around the center of the galaxy is about 251 km / s . [ 105 ] takes the solar system 1190 years to travel one light-years away within the scope of this speed or 7 days to travel a distance unit space [ 106 ]

Affected by the movement of the sun around the center of mass of the solar system planets disorders , so every few hundred years transformed the movement of ordinary movement to the movement of retrogressive . [ 107 ]

Problems TheoryEdit

Sun neutrino problemEdit

The measurements of electron neutrino rates for specific years and less on the ground , including between one-third to half the amount projected by the standard solar model . This headline Alentjh anomalous neutrino problem as the sun. I propose to solve this problem, either reduce the temperature inside the sun to explain the low flow of the neutrino , or suggest that it can electron neutrino to fluctuate , and turns the particles non- specific Tau neutrino and Meyon neutrino while traveling from the sun to the earth . [108 ] built several observatories to measure the rates of Alnewterno solar began in 1980 , [ 109 ] and showed this observation that the electron neutrino has a small block in addition to slumping . [ 110 ] [ 111 ] succeeded observatory Sudbury of the neutrino in 2001 to identify three types of neutrino , was found after this that the emission of the solar total neutrino agrees the standard model , [ 109 ] [ 112 ] and indecipherable after statistical analysis found that about 35 % of the Alniotrinwat coming from the sun type of electron neutrino . This agrees with the effect of Meckhev - Smirnov - Wolfenstein Alenetrino who described the fluctuation in the article. Currently considered that this problem has been resolved. [ 10

The issue of heating the coronaEdit

Temperature of atmospheric light about 6000 Kelvin , Ttamoda the sun's corona above the atmospheric light, temperature rises of between 1000000-2000000 Kelvin . [ 53 ] It appears from the high temperature of the corona that is heated as a result of something other than direct heating pregnancy Aharaa of atmospheric photosynthesis. [ 55 ]

Believes that the energy required to heat the corona secured movement troubled region pregnancy bottom cover photosynthesis, has proposed two mechanisms to explain the heating the corona . [ 53 ] The first hypothesis was invited waves heating , where the movement is troubled region pregnancy Tantjalamoaj voice and attractive and waves Alheidrodinamek magnetic . [ 53 ] are transmitted waves up and dissipate in the corona , to deposit their energy in the ambient gas in the form of heat . [ 113 ] while centering the second hypothesis about heating Amonatisin where built magnetic energy as a result of the movement of the cover photosynthesis and is liberated through reconnect magnetic image glare large sun and forms a similar glare but are Asger and countless numbers called glare nanoscale . [ 114 ]

Currently, it is unclear whether the waves affect the mechanism of heating , it was found that all the waves except waves Elvvin dissipated or reflected before they reach the corona . [ 115 ] In addition to waves Elvvin not dissipate easily in the aura , so it focuses researchers toward heating magnetic . [ 53 ]

The fading sun nascentEdit

Propose a theoretical model of the evolution of the sun that the sun by 3.8 to 2.5 billion years , and during the era was the Archite radiate 75% of Ziaiha compared to day . With such a star weak , it is unable to provide ground water , life can not evolve. However, the geological record shows that the Earth has remained at a constant temperature to some extent throughout its history , and that the nascent Earth was warmer than it is today . Brings together scientists that the Earth's atmosphere nascent whale much larger quantities of greenhouse gases ( such as carbon dioxide , methane and ammonia ), which exists today , which limit the amount is greater than the heat to compensate for small quantities delivered to Earth from solar energy. [ 116 ]

Date of monitoringEdit

Understanding of the ancientEdit

And put the sun in many cultures revered position through human history , like the rest of the natural phenomena . The human understanding of the sun as radiant disk in the sky, and its existence is formed above the horizon the day, and its absence causes night, considered the sun in a lot of prehistoric civilizations and ancient civilizations deity . The worship of the sun to the center of many peoples, civilizations such as the Incas in South America and the Aztecs in Mexico currently . According to these acts of worship

Ra or "Ra - Harakhty" major god in ancient Egyptian religion in the era of the Fifth Dynasty, and was symbolized by the sun disk

built many temples km focused on solar phenomena and mental impressions , for example stones Migalit which define the summer solstice and the winter solstice . And located some of the highlights of megalithic monuments in Egypt , Malta and Stonehenge in England . Of the most famous landmarks that define the winter solstice is Nograng Faoarlanda . The temple in the city of Chichen Itza Chichen Itza is designed to cast shadows in the form of snakes climb the pyramid in the spring and fall equinoxes .

In the late Empire, Romania was celebrating the birthday of the sun far known as Sol Invictus (which Ieina sun started to Atgahr ) shortly after the winter solstice , wood is probably the previous Ahtflat Holiday Birth . In terms of the fixed stars show the sun from the earth to spin it once a year along the ecliptic through the zodiac , so I consider astronomers Greek it is one of the seven planets and named after the names of the Week seven depending on that in some languages. [ 117 ] [ 118 [ 119 ]

The evolution of scientific understandingEdit

Note astronomers Babylonians in the first millennium BC, that the movement of the sun were not regularly along the path of the sun , although they did not realize why. Day knew that the Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun , so it is spin faster when they are near the sun ( perihelion ) and slower when they are far away ( aphelion ) [ 120 ] was the Greek philosopher Onxagoras of the first people who gave a scientific explanation of the sun defined them as a football giant flaming metal larger than the Peloponnese wheel instead of warships led by Helios , and knew that the moon reflects the light of the sun. [ 121 ] and was sentenced to the death penalty by the authorities for his education Madei heresy , but free after the intervention of Pericles . Eratosthenes estimated the distance between the Earth and the Sun in the third century BC , but even Allan there is still a difference in the health of the distance of translation . Select Claudius Ptolemy, the distance between the Earth and the Sun in 1210 as the weakness of the diameter of the Earth , which is equivalent to 7.71 million kilometers ( 0.0515 astronomical units ) [ 122 ]

Was the first to put the heliocentric theory and the rotation of the planets around the Erstrkhos of Samos in the third century BC , and then amended by Slqos . The development of this opinion in the sixteenth century , transforming it from a philosophical model to a mathematical model through the work of Nicolaus Copernicus . Allowed the emergence of telescopes on the development of detailed observations of sunspots by Thomas Harriot and Galileo Galilei and other astronomers . The Galileo first to develop Notes handlers on sunspots and hypothetical as positioned on the surface of the sun , instead of opinion as small objects moving between the Earth and the Sun . [ 123 ] The first monitoring historian sunspot record astronomers Chinese in the Kingdom of Han ( 220-206 BC) and who kept on recording their observations for several centuries . Ibn Rushd also record notes on sunspots . [124]

Included the contributions of Muslim astronomers acts like Mohammed Bin Jabir ibn Sinan al-Battani , who discovered that the direction of movement Apsis solar variable . [125] and log Ibn Yunus Egyptian more than 10,000 monitoring for repositioning the sun using the astrolabe large . [ 126] The first monitoring of the transit of Venus was in in 1302 at the hands of Ibn Sina , which concluded that Venus closer to the Earth than the sun. [ 127 ] while the first monitoring of the transit of Mercury in the twelfth century by Ibn Baja . [ 128 ]

Analyzed Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century sunlight using a prism , and between that White has a component of overlay several colors . [ 129 ] while discovered by William Herschel in 1800 that the solar spectrum contains the infrared in the spectral domain with a wavelength less than color Red . [ 130 ] evolved spectroscopic study of the sun's rays in the nineteenth century , scored more than Fraunhofer line spectral component of the solar spectrum .

The source of the sun's energy in the early ages of modern scientific conundrum for scientists . I suggest Lord Kelvin that the sun body cools gradually and as a result was radiating temperature of the internal stored . [ 131 ] then suggested Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz mechanism concentration of gravity to explain the power output the great sun , but by their appreciation of the age of the Sun will be 20 million sun , a life too short for what I propose scholars of that era , estimated at 300 million years old at the time. [ 131 ] in 1890 suggested that the discoverer of helium in the spectrum of the sun Joseph Norman Lockyer conformation meteorite theory to explain the form and evolution of the sun. [ 132 ]

In 1904, Ernest Rutherford suggested that the heat of the sun can be maintained by an internal source of heat , and suggested radioactive decay as the source of this energy . [ 133 ] Albert Einstein provided a basic idea for the production of solar power source of the equation equal matter and energy

E = MC2 [134]

Suggested Arthur Stanley Adngton in 1920 that the pressure and temperature two big in the nucleus of the sun will lead to a reaction nuclear fusion so that will integrate Proton pH in the nuclei of helium , which will result in the production of energy with the change in the cluster. [ 135 ] in 1925 confirmed Research Cecilia Payne Gabuczkyn using the theories of ionization the abundance of hydrogen in the sun . The concept was developed theoretical integration in 1930 by astrophysicists Sabramanin Chandraskhar Hans and his home , according to Hans has details interactive Atomic Energy producers , as in the sun's energy . [ 136 ] [ 137 ]

Finally, the publication of research in 1957 by Margaret Purbadj entitled "Synthesis of the elements in the stars " . [ 138 ] showed that most of the elements in the universe is produced from nuclear reactions inside stars, such as what is happening in our sun

Space flightEdit

Pioneer program was NASA's first to launch satellites ( Pioneer 5, 6, 7 and 8) to monitor the sun, has launched flights between the years 1959 to 1968. There has been this radiosondes in orbit around the sun is similar to Earth after the sun. And succeeded in collecting the first measurements of wind and the solar magnetic field . The work of the Pioneer 9 for a long period of time and continued until 1983 . [ 140 ] [ 141 ]

In 1970 secured all of my trip Helios and Apollo Observatory Mount Skylab new scientific information about
220px-Sunspots and Solar Flares

Large magnetic storm taken at 1:29 pm on March 13, 2012

the solar wind and the corona . The Helios 1 and 2, the product of collaboration between all of West Germany and the United States Alomrakh has studied the solar wind from orbit within Mercury's orbit during the gutter . [ 142 ] Sky Lab is a space station, American launched in 1973, has included this station Observatory solar named Observatory Apollo Mount , and who was by astronauts working in the station. [ 54 ] has provided Skylab first monitoring information about the transition zone of the solar and emissions of UV sun's corona . [ 54 ] also included Acetkchavtha emission coronal mass ejection holes aura that now knows it's a link closely solar wind . [ 142 ]

Launched NASA in 1980, the task of Solar Maximum , designed this task to monitor the emissions of gamma rays and X-rays and ultraviolet radiation emitted by solar flares during times of peak solar activity and brightness of the solar , but after a few months of its launch caused a malfunction letter in the probe by placing it in standby mode , to spend the next three years without any activity . In 1984 Challenger recovered and repaired before the holidays to return him to the orbit , the Solar Maximum captures many images of the sun's corona before returning to enter the Earth's atmosphere in June 1989 . [ 143 ]

Space Research Organization launched the Japanese in 1991, Yoko probe to monitor solar flares and the wavelengths of X-rays . Allowed the data collected from this probe for scientists to determine several different types of solar flares , and demonstrated that the corona away from the peak area was once a dynamic activity and higher than expected . Monitoring probe Yoko entire solar cycle , but entered in a Alastaada during the eclipse of 2001. Probe entered the Earth's atmosphere in 2005 for crashing there . [ 144 ]

The probe Soho and one of the most important missions that collected data from the sun , has been built with contributions from NASA and the European Space Agency for launch on December 2, 1995 . [ 54 ] was supposed to take his mission two years , but extended the mission until 2012 after it was approval to extend the mission in October 2009 . [ 145 ] has proved to be a useful follow-up to the task that was launched in February 2010 observatory probe the dynamics of the sun. [ 146 ] repositioning the probe in the Lagrangian point located between the Earth and the Sun . SOHO has provided scientists with images of the sun many different wavelengths since its launch. [ 54 ] also discovered the Soho In addition to monitoring the solar many comets , most of these comets were small and Ttamoda Madradtha near the sun to burn when it passes near the sun. [ 147 ]

Spotted all those missions sun from the level of the path of the sun, so they are spotted area Algstewae solar accurately . So NASA launched the European Space Agency probe Julius in 1990 to study the solar polar region . Probe launched to the buyer at the beginning of the Baltvafah and put himself in a higher orbit than the level of the path of the sun. The monitoring of the comet collision coincidence Homcar - Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994 . Once in orbit repositioning Julius planned , began to monitor the solar wind and the solar magnetic field intensity on the higher latitudes of the equator . Probe found that the solar wind at higher latitudes was moving fast 750 km / s which is lower than expected, in addition to the presence of a strong magnetic field issued in these altitudes , which was merged with cosmic rays . [ 148 ]

Annadhar concentrations of atmospheric optical knew well through spectroscopic studies , but there was a lack of knowledge of the composition of the interior of the sun. Therefore, the task can be sent to the promises were invited as the configuration has been designed for this task allow scientists to direct measurement of the compounds of the sun. Genesis probe returned to Earth in 2004 but hurt after that hit the ground as a result of his parachute failed to open after entering the atmosphere. Despite serious damage , have been recovered, some usable samples of the spacecraft , which is their studies and their analysis . [ 149 ]

Probe launched Msparin stereo consisting of two parts in October 2006 . The separated rovers to be withdrawn gradually behind the Earth's orbit , making them able to shoot the sun and solar phenomena , including coronal mass emission . [ 150 ] [ 151 ]

Launched the Indian Space Research Organisation on behalf of Aditya space probe weighing 100 kg in 2012, and aims to study the dynamics of the solar corona . [ 152 ]

Monitoring and effectsEdit

Consider the direct cause of the sun and the naked eye , though, that the consideration for a brief period does not cause any danger to the eye non- dilated pupil . [ 153 ] [ 154 ] considered the direct cause to the sun phosphene visual and partial temporary blindness . As the sunlight leads to supply the retina at about 4 milliwatts resulting in heating a few of the retina , and is likely to cause some damage to the eye to weaken their response to brightness . [ 155 ] [ 156 ] as to offer eye to ultraviolet radiation will lead to yellowing progressive lens of the eye , to contribute to the occurrence of cataract , with a note that this is dependent on exposure to ultraviolet radiation in general and not given direct access to the sun. [ 157 ] leads to consider direct and to the naked eye to the sun, causing lesions and exposure to ultraviolet light , such as burns the retina , which appear after exposure to radiation the sun for 100 seconds , particularly in circumstances that are ultraviolet (UV) solar intense and focused [ 158 ] [ 159 ] as causes considered to sunlight using concentrates visual like spyglass without the use of filters is likely to ultraviolet (UV) to permanent damage to the retina , some filters commercial pass UV or infrared , which can harm the eye at levels high brightness . [ 160 ] recognizes binoculars non- filtered to the retina Alaah 500 times the energy than given by using the naked eye , this large amount of energy would cause death immediately retinal cells , so that the looks Shariah afternoon sun through Almnzarat close will lead to permanent blindness .

Constitutes a partial eclipse risk to consider , because the iris Pollack adapted to the high-contrast optical radiation . Expanding the pupil depending on the amount of light within the pulmonary . During a partial eclipse , the moon obscures most of the sunlight , but it does not cover many parts of the cas
220px-Actual Sunrise

Sunrise scene of the earth's surface.

ing and the light which has a brightness similar to the brightness in normal days . As a result, during the eclipse is expanding Iris from 2 mm to 6 mm exposed every cell in the retina of the eye to ten times more energy than in days regular , this will damage or kill those cells which will result in blind spots . [ 161 ] This is a danger to the Moderators inexperienced or children because of the lack of feeling pain , in addition to the lack of speed of the destruction of the pulmonary .

The sun during sunrise and sunset because of weak scattering and scattering Relay in May passed through long Earth's atmosphere . [ 162 ] the sun is sometimes weak Bmaver enough to be comfortable without pulmonary risks . They also contribute to foggy conditions and dust in the atmosphere to increase the impact of this scattershot . [ 163 ]

May occur some optical phenomena rare shortly after sunset or before sunrise called this phenomenon the phenomenon of blinking green , produces this flash as a result of the refraction of sunlight under the line of sight toward the observer , and this light with a wavelength small (green or purple or blue ) , remains unlike Alumiadan green light blue and purple being the have a great affinity for scattering at odds blinking green . [ 164 ]

Possess UV solar antiseptic properties and can be used to sterilize tools and water . It also has medicinal effects such as the production of vitamin D weaken the ozone layer UV so vary the amount of ultraviolet radiation varies greatly with altitude and latitude ground that contribute to the amendments biological are many , including differences in the color of human skin on different parts of the world. [ 165 ]